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By Nic.Korte
Wednesday, March 30, 2016

One of my heroes was Alexander F. Skutch. He was a pioneer tropical ornithologist who traveled through much of South and Central America in the 1930s and 40s. He eventually settled in Costa Rica. He lived on a small farm and nature preserve until his death in 2004--a few days before his 100th birthday. One of many things that impressed me about his writings is that although he was surrounded by some of the most interesting exotic species in the world, he never tired of studying and appreciating the commonplace.

Skutch also made a great study of and wrote several books on belief systems from all over the world. “What was their essence”? he wondered. “What did they have in common”? From these studies and his experience, he reported that appreciation and co-operation were the most important attributes in one’s approach to life.

I am reminded of Skutch’s appreciation of the commonplace when I think of our familiar Robins. I have lots of favorite birds, but this time of year my choice is the American Robin as it is officially known. I love hearing them sing as they stake out their territories in our yards and announce the arrival of spring.

Sadly, I have heard folks be dismissive of Robins simply because of their abundance. Don’t take them for granted! What are the other most abundant birds around town? Eurasian Starlings. House Sparrows. Eurasian Collared Doves. Mourning Doves. Except for the latter, the others are non-natives, and the former two, in particular, are known as much for their ability to persecute and out-compete our native species as for any endearing habits they might have. One native bird they haven’t beaten up on is the Robin.

Although the American Robin is a native, its name is a misnomer. Homesick European settlers thought it resembled the Eurasian Robin which is from an altogether different family. I would name our Robin a Rufous-breasted Thrush. Six other thrushes are widespread in the United States, but unless you are a birder, you may not have heard of the others. Although several have beautiful songs, they are drably-colored and tend to be skulkers. They avoid humans and hide in thick vegetation. Our Robin, however, is an outlier—a disrupter in the thrush family. Robins will hunt worms and insects in your yard even while you mow it—or play fetch with the dog. Indeed, I often tend to think of Robins as pets—especially when they hop on the deck and drink from the dog’s dish.

I noted some years ago that Robins are year-around residents in our part of the US ( But, they aren’t year-around singers and nesters. That’s what happens now. Now is the time to celebrate spring and the return of Robins to our yards.

This post provided by Nic Korte, Grand Valley Audubon Society. Send questions/comments to [To learn more and to participate in the activities of Grand Valley Audubon, please see our website at and “like” us on Facebook!]



By Nic.Korte
Wednesday, March 16, 2016

The crosses along the road were a sad reminder of past events. They were dedicated to Cubans killed during the US-supported invasion of Cuba known in our country as the Bay of Pigs, but elsewhere as the Invasion of Playa Girón.
(Photo by Tim Henson)

The failed invasion occurred in April 1961. Fifty-five years later, birders are invading. The village of Playa Larga was our base for exploring the nearby Zapata Swamp—the largest protected area in the Caribbean.

But, why go birding in Cuba?

Because it is an island!  Renowned biologist E.O. Wilson and his collaborator Robert MacArthur tested a theory of species equilibrium on a tiny island in the Florida Keys. All insect species were eradicated and they observed the re-population by new species. A book describing this experiment, The Theory of Island Biogeography, became a standard ecology text explaining how many species will populate islands of a certain size, and why many are endemics—that is, found nowhere else in the world.

While the exact number can be debated—if Hawaii (home to many island-endemics) is eliminated--the number of bird species found only in the United States during their entire life span is 16. The number found in Cuba and nowhere else is 24-- down from 26 because two are already extinct. The number of Cuban endemics may rise as more genetic testing is performed, but it may also fall because most of the 24 remaining endemics are rated endangered or vulnerable because of their small populations and dwindling habitat.

Besides, the “Cuba-only” birds, 21 others found on Cuba are found only in the West Indies—often on only one or two other islands. Some of these are also endangered.
One endemic we saw frequently was the Cuban Trojan or tocororo—a local name based on its call. Fortunately, this beautiful bird, unlike many trogons found in Central and South America, is adaptable, and has a stable population.

(Cuba's National Bird, the Cuban Trogan, photo by Tim Henson)

Why Cuba now?

Restrictions for travel by US citizens are still in place. Travel in a group and under a special license is required. The pretense is that the group is doing a Natural History Survey or engaging in some sort of educational or social outreach. What is driving birders, however, is the sense of "before it is too late.” There is fear that Western investment and too many visitors will overrun the limited habitat. For example, two major birding magazines recently published articles about birding on Cuba.

One morning, I asked our tour leader how many other birding groups he thought might be in the area. He said he'd be surprised if there were others. We arrived at our planned location only to be confronted with two large buses and two larger groups of birders. We had hoped to see the endangered Zapata Wren. Possibly less than 1000 still survive. With more than 50 birders and three guides trying to call one; is it any wonder none of us saw a Zapata Wren? Lack of infrastructure and lack of enforcement of existing law, rather than resorts and condos may be more likely to doom Cuba’s remaining fragile species. Indeed, our local guide thought major resort developments on the Western model would not happen because Cuba’s leaders have clung to their original paradigm and not used their power to enrich themselves.  Whatever one may think of the Cuban socioeconomic model, it is a good thing that money can't buy influence.

The people we met were delightful. Our food was tasty and plentiful. A five-inch piece of thick spiny lobster tail anyone? How about a plateful of fresh shrimp? 

However the future plays out, I hope there will be room for Fernandina’s Flicker. Perhaps only 600 individuals remain in isolated populations. We were lucky, two of them gave us a great view for many minutes. 

(Fernandina's Flicker, photo by Tim Henson)

[Populations of all Cuban endemics are believed to be decreasing. Other species in jeopardy include: Giant Kingbird (population possibly as low as 250, we saw two), Blue-headed Quail Dove (population possibly no more than 1000, we saw none), Zapata Sparrow (population possibly no more than 1000, we saw none).]

This post provided by Nic Korte, Grand Valley Audubon Society. Send questions/comments to [To learn more and to participate in the activities of Grand Valley Audubon, please see our website at and “like” us on Facebook!]



By Nic.Korte
Sunday, February 28, 2016

My friend and I drove up 8th street early that morning. There on top of the tower was the killer. Not only had he killed, he was ripping the now lifeless body to shreds.
We were watching a Peregrine Falcon devour what appeared to be a Rock Pigeon. The pigeon probably had no chance. Peregrines can reach 200 mph when in one of their power dives, called a stoop.

That we see Peregrines at all is one of the Conservation movement's greatest success stories. The widespread use of organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT, had caused thinning of the eggshells of Peregrines and other birds at the top of the food chain. This led to a widespread disappearance of Peregrines and to their listing as an endangered species. Once use of organochlorine pesticides was regulated, Peregrine Falcons, and other species (e.g. Bald Eagle, Brown Pelican) whose populations had plummeted, began to recover.

In recent years, it has become fashionable for some to portray Rachel Carson, author of Silent Spring, as a mass murderer because mosquitos continue to kill, and organochlorines are seldom used against them. This characterization of Carson is unfair and misleading. Her book was written, for example, before DNA was discovered. There was no EPA. There was no Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, no Superfund, no Toxic Substances Control Act, etc. Carson reacted to what was essentially fumigation. Clouds of DDT were doused on people and wildlife. She saw for herself an incident where fish died immediately after a large, indiscriminate application. Her overall warning was accurate.

Current naysayers also forget that DDT use had already been discontinued in some locations where it had formerly been effective, because the local mosquito population had developed resistance rendering applications ineffectual. Carson also did not call for DDT to be banned. “It is not my contention that chemical insecticides should never be used,” she wrote. “I do contend that we have put poisonous and biologically potent chemicals indiscriminately into the hands of persons largely or wholly ignorant of their potential for harm... I contend, furthermore, that we have allowed these chemicals to be used with little or no advance investigation of their effects on soil, water, wildlife, or man himself.” She was right. And, indeed, DDT is still used, but in focused, careful applications, an approach that if used in the beginning, would have obviated the need for her book.

Grand Junction’s local Rock Pigeons may wish Rachel Carson had never written Silent Spring, but the rest of us can enjoy the resurgence of the fastest bird in the world. The last time I looked, there were a pair of falcons. (Check out the tower at 8th and Main.) As with many birds-of-prey, the female is slightly larger. Hopefully, they will nest on one of our downtown buildings and there will always be generations of Peregrines to keep the Rock Pigeons in check.

This post provided by Nic Korte, Grand Valley Audubon Society. Send questions/comments to [To learn more and to participate in the activities of Grand Valley Audubon, please see our website at and “like” us on Facebook!]



By Nic.Korte
Friday, February 19, 2016

A month ago, I wrote about birding in Minnesota when it was twenty-two degrees below zero ( I am not always so crazy. A couple of weeks ago, here in Grand Junction, the day wasn’t as frigid, but it was cold and windy with blowing snow. My wife and I and a visiting friend had planned a day in the mountains. Instead, we went to the new “Star Wars” movie! Posted in the coming attractions, a Valentine’s Day special, was the coming-of-age classic, “Pretty in Pink.”

I thought of that movie’s title the next day when x-country skiing above the town of Collbran. Why? There was a beautiful flock of Pine Grosbeaks on a snow-flocked shrub. Their pink color was gorgeous, simply overwhelming the white and gray of the surroundings.

 (Male Pine Grosbeak by Jackson Trappett. Pine Grosbeaks show some color variation with some being distinctly pink. Check out images on the internet if you are curious.)

Lucky for my wife and I, this was our third encounter with Pine Grosbeaks in just a few weeks. On our visit to Northern Minnesota in January, we surprised our local guide by being so familiar with Pine Grosbeaks. He had forgotten that Colorado has its own boreal forests. Our other viewing was about two weeks later on the Skyway x-country trail on Grand Mesa. A group of six or eight Pine Grosbeaks were feeding in the top of a tall spruce as we skied by.

Pine Grosbeaks are widespread—breeding in boreal forests from Alaska to Newfoundland and Nova Scotia as well as in the high mountains of the Western US. In that previous cold weather blog, I recounted searching for a Boreal Chickadee, and noted how that species proved proved Bergmann’s rule, (the further north, the larger the species). Boreal Chickadees are slightly bigger than the varieties common in most of the US. (Bergmann’s Rule: Similarly, Pine Grosbeaks are our largest finch.

 (Photo by Jackson Trappett. Female Pine Grosbeaks are less colorful than males.)

Finch? Didn’t I say they were grosbeaks? They do have a big beak, and once upon a time (but not in a kingdom far away), all of the Grosbeaks were classified as finches. Those Bird Guides on my shelves that are almost as old as I am, list all of them as finches. Recent research, made possible by advances in genetic research, has caused scientists to remove three “grosbeaks” from the Finch family. Two of the Grosbeaks are still finches. One is the Pine Grosbeak. No matter, what is most important is that pink color brightening up a snowbound world.

Typically, Pine Grosbeaks are not wary so while enjoying the snowy winter we are having, look for a flash of pink in the top of a pine or spruce.

This post provided by Nic Korte, Grand Valley Audubon Society. Send questions/comments to [To learn more and to participate in the activities of Grand Valley Audubon, please see our website at and “like” us on Facebook!]



By Nic.Korte
Sunday, February 7, 2016

A few scattered feathers. Some are blood-splattered. What happened? A conflict for certain. There was a winner and a loser.

This led me to think of a less serious conflict--a recent debate on the website of the American Birding Association ( Two prominent birders were arguing whether the popularity of birding should be attributed to whether it was difficult or easy. To me, it is a bit of both. But, what has this to do with blood-spattered feathers?

A few minutes before, I had looked out my window and admired thirty or forty birds milling about my various backyard feeders. There were Lesser Goldfinches—a few males were starting to acquire their lemon yellow and jet black summer plumage. There were male House Finches displaying their range of color from pink to red. Dark-eyed Juncos representing several subspecies were also present. These birds were easy to watch, and easy to identify. Birding, therefore, is fun, because it is easy.

Now, my feeder birds were gone. I had a suspicion of what happened, and scanned the nearby trees. Eventually I spied a hunched-over shape. From past experience, I knew it was either a Cooper’s Hawk or a Sharp-shinned Hawk. Both birds are common in the Grand Valley during the winter, and both feed almost entirely on other birds. Large assemblies of prey, such as at feeders, are attractive to the birds that would eat the birds that eat the seeds.

Birders accept the idea of Cooper’s and Sharp-shinned Hawks taking a few birds near their feeders. We hope that it will be one of the common and exotic species such as a Eurasian Collared Dove or a House Sparrow, even though we know that’s not always the case.

What birders find “difficult” about Cooper’s and Sharp-shinned Hawks is identifying them. These two hawks are closely-related. They belong to a family known as accipiters. They have very similar plumages and habits.

(Accipters have relatively short wings, perfect for maneuvering quickly. (Check out this YOUTUBE video of the closely-related Goshawk if you want to “feel” how these birds can dodge and dive:

What about the identification problem? I know I’ve made mistakes. The size of these birds can overlap, as can their other characteristics. That is, a large specimen of the usually-smaller Sharp-shinned, can overlap in size with a small Cooper’s Hawk. Fortunately, with enough viewing time or with great photos; most can be identified.

A Sharp-shinned tends to have a squarer tail, but conditions of molt and age make this characteristic unreliable. Usually, you need to examine several characteristics to be certain. Below is a photo of a Juvenile Cooper’s Hawk taken by a neighbor. This one was cruising our neighborhood, and a pile of feathers in another yard may have accounted for this bird’s long period of posing for photos. When they are actively hunting, accipters don’t tend to sit still very long, but after a meal, feeling sated, they may permit a close approach. Most birding field guides are unable to list enough information for separating Cooper’s from Sharp-shinned especially the juveniles.  How do I know this is a Coopers Hawk?

(photo by Joe Kendrick)

• The side/back view shows quite a bit of white on the nape. That is characteristic of a Cooper’s hawk. A Sharp-shinned would be dark.
• With the back view, you can see three dark bands on the tail—one just emerging from under the feathers on the back and then two more. On most Sharp-shinned hawks, you can only see two.
• The head appears flat not rounded. Cooper’s are flat, Sharp-shinned are rounded.
• The photo from the front shows what appear to be relatively thick legs. A sharp-shinned’s legs would look thin.
• If you had to say whether the eye appeared “forward” in the head or to the middle, I think you’d agree it looks forward.
That was fun—puzzling out which hawk this was and being able to explain it to my neighbor.

Here’s a view of a Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

(Sharp-shinned Hawk in my apricot tree)

This is an adult. If it were a juvenile, colors and markings would be very similar to the Cooper’s Hawk. Notice the apparent small head. It also has a big-eyed and barrel-chested look. Both are characteristics of Sharp-shinned. Those weren’t so hard were they?

What about this one? 

(juvenile Cooper's[?] Hawk)
I was able to examine this hawk for a long time, but the nape and head shape are not discernible in the bright light with this viewing angle.  The legs aren’t visible. The tail tip seems to be between rounded and square.   This type of view isn’t uncommon. Now what? My general impression of size and shape was that the bird was a Cooper’s hawk, but I’m not making any wagers. I had to leave that one unidentified, but it was fun to try and figure it out.

What about the debate on the ABA website? For me, it is a draw. I like to go birding because sometimes it is easy and sometimes it is difficult.

This post provided by Nic Korte, Grand Valley Audubon Society. Send questions/comments to [To learn more and to participate in the activities of Grand Valley Audubon, please see our website at and “like” us on Facebook!]

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